Painting by Charles Le Brun (1673)

Painting by Charles Le Brun (1673)

Porus, with the assistance of elephants, brought Alexander remarkably close to defeat.

Porus was eventually defeated, outmatched by Alexander’s archers and mounted cavalry in the Battle of Hydaspes, fought on the banks of the Hydaspes River in Punjab.

Despite victory, Alexander had been the closest he had ever been to defeat in his military career.

He came to view Porus a capable warrior and worthy of governing a part of his empire, and hence made him a satrap (governor) in the southeast of his empire, displaying how much respect Alexander had for him.

During the conquest on the Hydaspes, however, Alexander faced a significant personal loss of his most loyal companion, Bucephalus, who either died from battle wounds or old age.

In memory of Bucephalus, Alexander named the city north of the Hydaspes after his horse.

Three years later, in 323 B.C., Alexander would also pass away, and with no named successor, his empire would split, as a result of a fierce power struggle, into 4 kingdoms.

However, many lands retained Greek influence, ushering in the Hellenistic period lasting from his death to 31 B.C. Alexander did not conquer the world, yet he had certainly achieved the glory he desired.

The Path to Egypt Following the Battle of Tyre, Alexander encountered resistance at Gaza, which resulted in a two-month siege. Following his victory, he visited Jerusalem, which was tradition.

After taking control of Gaza and visiting Jerusalem, Alexander continued to move towards Egypt.

Once he arrived, he was greeted peacefully, and established the city of Alexandria west of the Nile.

The main obstacle in his way for dominion over the Persian empire was now, as always, Darius III who, since his defeat at Issus, had organised a large army.

Painting by Charles Le Brun (1673) Both sides suffered crushing losses, and eventually Darius was assassinated by his own soldiers.

In a remarkable display of respect for Darius, Alexander supposedly buried him as a king, not a commoner.

This shows Alexander could be quite unpredictable; he either despised or admired his opposition, and there was very rarely any in between.

The Invasion of India.

When he ventured to India in 326 B.C., most tribes in India peacefully welcomed Alexander, though an equally legendary, yet less well known, King Porus of Paurava chose to go to battle against Alexander.

Painting by Charles Le Brun (1673) Strangely, despite a less experienced army.

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